Self-study of respiratory diseases (influenza, cough and asthma)

Self-investigation of Infectious Diseases

(Influenza, Cough and Asthma)

Submitted to complete the assignment of Pharmaceutical Services courses


1. Understanding Selfmedication

Self-medication or treatment itself is the use of drugs by the people for the purpose of treatment of mild pain, without a prescription or intervention of a doctor. Self-medication in this case is limited only to the latest drugs, namely over-the-counter drugs & limited free drugs. Self-education is generally done to overcome complaints and mild diseases experienced by residents, including fever, pain, cough, flu, and various other diseases. Self-efficacy as an alternative taken by the people to increase the affordability of treatment. In its implementation, it can be the origin of medication errors due to limited knowledge of citizens about drugs and their use. In this case pharmacists are required to be able to put the right information to the citizens so that the community can avoid the use of drugs (drug abuse) & drug use (drugmisuse) (Ditjen Binfar, 2007).

Based on Susenas-BPS in 2011, Indonesia recorded 66.8% doing self-sufficiency (Gitawati, 2014), but the level of Self-sufficiency of Indonesia is still low when compared to the number of independents in america, which is up to 73% even tend to rise, this is based on a survey of six based on ten Americans who say they will do self-study on the same disease (Kartajaya et al., 2011). The future conduite self-medication will increase along with the increasing socio-economic aspect and formal and informal aspects of education that come based on medical personnel or information in social media today (Hermawati, 2012).

The drive to self-care is seen as an opportunity to create a self-religion to manage health and also the beginning of a positive step in the relationship between patients and medical energy. Self-education is a health development term in which everyone has the right to choose the quality of selfcare himself so that he can manage his own finances using profit can avoid rational stature (Gupta et al., 2011). Other factors that affect self-medication include the urgency of necessary care, the first treatment in sick patients, lack of health services, low economy, distrust of medical energy, the impact of information from advertising, the availability of abundant drugs in shops or stalls, and one of the factors often experienced by the people is due to limited access to health in rural or remote areas (Phalke et al., 2006).

2.1 Definition of Influenza

Influenza is an acute viral infection caused by the influenza virus, and spreads easily from person to person. The virus is spread around the world and can affect people regardless of age and gender (WHO, 2009). Flusendiri is a self-limiting disease, where if there is no application with other diseases, then after 4-7 days the disease will be cured. The endurance of a person’s body will greatly affect the severity of the disease. The endurance of the body is determined by the pattern of life of a person. In children, the elderly, and people who have low endurance are more likely to suffer from complications such as bacterial infections. Flu is transmitted through splashing air when coughing, sneezing, and handlessly washed after the relationship using nasal / mouth fluid. (BPOM, 2006).

Two.2 symptoms of influenza

Common symptoms are rapid temperature increase/fever, myalgia, headache, muscle aches, malaise, watery eyes, phlegm cough, sore throat, and rhinitis. Other symptoms in children are nausea, vomiting, &otitis media. (Dipiro, 2008).

two.three pathophysiology of influenza

Hemagglutinin danneuraminidase is crucial to virulence, and is a target for neutralizing antibody acuired immunity to influenza. Hemagglutinin lures the epithelial cells of respiration so that it is able to infect cells. Neuraminidase cuts bonds that delay new virions on the surface of the cell wall resulting in cell dispersal. (Gubareva et al., 2001). Influenza pathogenesis in humans is still not well understood. The severity of infection is characterized by the equilibrium between viral replication and the host’s immune response. Severe infections are thought to be the output lacking the body’s defense mechanisms that are less to inhibit replication, and overproduction of cytokines causing tissue destruction in the host (Dipiro, 2008).

2.4 Things to Do

People who suffer from the flu are advised to rest a lot, drink poly fluids, and if necessary take drugs to relieve disturbing signs. Measures recommended to relieve flu symptoms without treatment include:

a.    Rest two-3 days, reducing physical activity first. Check with your doctor if signs persist for more than three days.

b.   Improve culinary nutrition. Foods with high calories and protein will increase endurance. Eat poly fruits contain vitamins.

c. Drinking plenty of water, tea, cider will reduce dry water in the throat, dilute the phlegm & help lower fever.

d. Often gargle using salt water to reduce pain in the throat.

2.five Influenza pharmacotherapy

2.five.1 Antihistamines

Antihistamines can inhibit the work of the drug which causes allergic reactions. Drugs classified as anti-drugstresses include Chlorpheniramin maleate/CTM, Difenhydramine HCl.

b) Things that must be considered

Avoidosis beyond recommended

v Avoid use with intoxicating drinks or sleeping pills

Watch out for people with glaucoma and prostatic hypertrophy or seek a doctor’s advice

v Do not consume this drug when going to drive a mount & running the engine

v Drowsiness, dizziness, impaired airway secretions

Adults: 1 tablet (two mg) every 6-8 hours

Children: <12 years 1/2 tablet (12.five mg) every 6-8 hours

Adults: 1-2 capsules (25-50 mg) every 8 hours

Children: 1/2 tablet (12.5 mg) every 6-8 hours

2.five.two Oksimetazolin (Nose Drops)

Reduce the secretion of the nose that is blocked.

b) Things that must be considered

Avoidosis beyond recommended

v Be careful when dripping into the count, the dose is right and the entry into the nose must be determined, do not flow out or be restrained

Not allowed to be used more than 7-10 days

v Immediatelyminum completion of using the drug, because water can dilute the drug ingested

v End of the bottle of the drug rinsed using hot water as often as used

v Damaging the nose because the nasal congestion is getting worse

v Feeling palpability, dryness, sneezing, headache, difficulty sleeping, pounding

The drug should not be used on:

Children under 6 years of age, due to more severe side effects

Adults and children over 6 years: 2-three drops/spray of 0.05% oksimetazolin per hole.

Children: (2-five years) two-3 drops/spray of 0.025% oksimetazolin per nostril.

Drugs are used in the morning and before going to bed at night, not more than 2 times in 24 hours.

2.lima.3 Oral Decongestants

Decongestants have the impact of reducing clogged containment. Decongestant drugs related to the mouth include: Phenylpropanolamin, Phenilefrine, Pseudoefedrin & Ephedrine. The drug is generally a one-component error in the flu drug.

b) Things to pay attention to

Be careful in diabetics because it can raise blood sugar levels, hemorrhoids, hypertension, heart disorders and patients who useantantpresi. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

Non-drug should be used in difficulty sleeping (difficulty sleeping), dizziness, tremors, arrhythmias and patients who use MAO (mono amin oxidase) inhibitors.

Arrhythmias especially in people with heart disease and blood clots.

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