NAME OF TUTOR: dr. Suyatmi, MBiomedSc



The primary function of the lungs is to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and replace oxygen. The chest wall and diaphragm serve as a pump to move air in and out of the lungs as a result of which gas exchange can occur along the alveolokapiler membrane. Thus, the chance of the onset of disease in the crucial oragan system is very poly. A common approach in the study of pulmonary pathology, is to use grouping lung diseases into diseases that are about the airway, interstitium, &pulmonary vascular system. The division into separate compartments is clearly artificial because in reality, diseases in one compartment are generally accompanied by morphological changes and functions in the other compartment.

The lungs become organs with a wide surface, rapid blood genre and thin alveolar epithelium is an important contact loka using substances derived based on the environment. Lung disease that exists at this time can be caused by many factors. And one of the concerns over the impact of exposure to harmful materials in the workplace and the environment to health since the last few decades seems to be getting higher because of its role in impaired lung function. Occupational lung disease is important because it is caused by exposure to dust, smoke, or chemicals that can later interfere with the normal functioning of the lungs. Exposure to harmful materials at work can result in or worsen diseases such as asthma, bronchiectasis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer, or tuberculosis.

Scenario: An 18-year-old man tastes a non-reduced cough three days later. The cough that was felt at first was not accompanied by phlegm, but since that morning began to cough phlegm, even now suddenly as shortness of breath. In addition, sufferers also have a fever. Previously sufferers cleaned old bookshelves of his father who were full of dust. The patient immediately comes to his family doctor, there the doctor looked at the patient to get other signs and indications of respiration. On the inspection of auscultation sufferers found a noticeable wheezing. The doctor did not forget, the brother of the sufferer also suffered from chronic lung disease which in his thoracic X-ray showed a picture of honeycomb appearance but never found wheezing. Furthermore, the doctor gave drugs in the patient two types of drugs that are not in sync with the benefits.

In general, lung disease can cause generic signs and signs as well as signs and signs of breathing. Signs and signs of breathing include coughing, hyperbolic sputum, or abnormal, hemoptytic, dyspnea, chest pain. While those that include common signs and signs are cyanosis, tabuh fingers, and hypertrophic osteoartropathy, and other related manifestations using inadequate gas exchange.


What is anatomy, physiology according to the respiratory system?

How is the pathophysiology of cough, phlegm, shortness of breath, fever &wheezing?

Why can a cough that is not originally phlegm be able to become a cough of phlegm and shortness of breath?

Is there still a link between the patient’s illness and his brother’s disease?

five. Is the patient’s cough caused by dust?

6.What is the mechanism of honeycomb appearance? What diseases are related?

7.What two types of drugs do doctors give in patients?

C.PURPOSEKnowing theatomy & physiology of the respiratory systemKnowing the pharliphysiology of cough, phlegm, shortness of breath, fever &wheezingKnowing the cause of shortness of breath that begins according to coughingKnowing the linkage of the patient’s oldest sibling disease with the patient himselfUnderstand coughing procedures due to allergensUnderstand the procedure for honeycomb appearanceKnow the management of the disease in the scenario


1. Students can understand the anatomy &physiology of the respiratory system

2. Students can find and understand pathologies in respiratory diseases, especially bronchhiale asthma

3. Students can find out calcification, kausa, diagnosis, management,

prognosis, & rehabilitation of bronchhiale asthma


1. Anatomy of the Respiratory System

The airway or conduction system consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles to conduct air according to the atmosphere to the alveolus. The bronchi are divided in two, gradually shrinking and walled thinner in the time the air passes based on the hilum to the periphery. When the walls are already bony prone, this airway is called bronchioles. Bronchioles are 2 mm in diameter, have smooth muscle walls, and end up in the alveolus. Epithelial coatings are ciliated columners in large airways and cilioids in distal bronchioles. Mucous-making goblet cells are also present, especially in large bronchi. The distribution of mini granule cells is also found in the basal membrane between epithelial cells in the bronchi. These cells are neuroendocrine cells that contain serotonin, bombesin, and other polypeptides. The tiny dome-shaped claret cells in the terminal bronchioles secrete proteins that line the small airway.

There are two units of pulmonary parenakim, namely pulmonary lobules and pulmonary asinus. The pulmonary lobules are shown to be the original structure of the small bronchioles consisting of 5-7 terminal bronchioles and more distal structures. The pulmonary asinus is a structure that appears according to a single terminal bronchioles and consists of respiratory bronchioles &alveolus. Respiratory bronchioles are coated with the kuboid epithelium which plays a role in gas exchange. Bronchioles respiratory earlier headed to the duct alveolus. Sakus alveolus appears as the outer sacs of sakular according to the ductus alveolus and respiratory bronchioles. The walls of the alveolus are five-10 microns thick and are coated by type II pneumothite cells which are producers of surfactants and proliferate rapidly in case of alveolus injury.

The lungs are surrounded by mesothelial cells that form the visceral pleura and will later be continuous with the boundary in the chest wall (pleura parietalis) in the lung hilum. The pleural cavity lubricates the thin layer of pleural fluid that allows lung movement according to the chest wall.

The lungs have a double blood supply. The branches of the bronchial arterioles follow the bronchial tree and have nutritive functions. The pulmonary arteries are divided to produce a network of capillaries, a primary function where gas exchange occurs.

2. Physiology of the Respiratory System

The respiratory system or respiratory system has a role to provide oxygen (O2) and remove co2 gas (CO2) from the body. The function of providing oxygen is to be the origin of energy for the body that must be supplied continuously, while CO2 is a toxic material that must be immediately spewed according to the body. This CO2 if piled on the blood will decrease pH as a result resulting in acidosis conditions that can interfere with the body’s faal can even result in death. The process of respiration takes place in several terms, namely:

a. Ventilation, is the process of moving air into & out of the lungs. This process consists of ideas and expirations.

Inspiration is the movement of air from the outside into the lungs. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonal pressure is lower based on outside air pressure. And this pressure ranges from -1 mmHg to using -3 mmHg. This process begins using contraction of the diaphragm muscle and externa intercostalis. Contraction of these muscles will result in the thoracic cavity expanding and the volume of the cavity expanding. As a result, intra-pleural pressure decreases and the lungs expand. Because in wangsit, there is a decrease in intraalveol pressure, then air in the atmosphere will enter the lungs.

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